Friday, March 20, 2020
Remuneration in Western Australia Introduction In the modern business world, a lot of competition has been experienced in all industries of the global economies and business people have been required to adjust their activities to the changing environment. As competition intensifies, the need for qualified people has also increased and attracting and retaining professionals in an organization has been of great importance.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Remuneration in Western Australia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The high rate of employee turnover being experienced today can only be reduced by adopting better strategies of retaining employees. Employee turnover causes failure of many systems in an organization and managers should try to protect their organizations by applying the best strategies of retaining their workers. Remuneration is one of the greatest elements of employee motivation that organizations use. However, human resources manager s are required to use a mixture of strategies to motivate their employees. Globalization has increased competition in the labour markets because skilled individuals can move to markets which provide better terms of employment. In this paper I will discuss the role remuneration plays in retaining staff in the expanding regional economy of Western Australia. Various theories on remuneration and employee motivation have been discussed to identify the strategies adopted by companies to retain their employees. Economy of Western Australia There have been steady growth in the economy of Western Australia and this has required many business entities to expand their operations. Western Australia contributes more than 38 percent of all the exports of Australia as per the 2009 statistics. The high rate of economic growth is expected to have great pressure on the labour market because many people are required to work in all sectors of the economy. Resources available in the economy as well as the development projects being undertaken in Western Australia have provided a favourable environment for expanding business activities and this has intensified the demand for labour. Resources and construction sectors in the economy have created a high demand for labour and this has led to competition because every institution is seeking more workers. Adequate measures have been taken to reduce the shortage of labour and skills and to enable the state and the nation to tap the opportunities available.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To balance demand and supply of labour in the country, the Department of Training and Workforce Development has developed strategies by aligning the workforce with the needs of the industry. Population demographics in the labour market of Western Australia indicate that most of the employees are aged 35 and there are projectio ns for an increase in the median age to approximately 45 years. Birth rate in Western Australia has dropped and this indicates that population would reduce drastically in the future years. Workforce participation rate in Western Australia has been estimated to be above the average even though it has been predicted that the rate may decline in the near future. The increasing demand for labour which has been coupled by the demographic trends have created a situation where there is need for investing more time and resources to attract and retain professionals and skilled workforce. In the global scene, changes in demographics, improved business growth and the increasing competition for professional employees have made it impossible for managers to predict as well as achieve an optimal staffing level. Competition for skilled workforce requires establishing good plans for attracting and retaining employees. To attract and retain the workforce of a given industry requires satisfying all the needs of employees. The governments of Australia have a mandate of ensuring that the employee is satisfied as far as the work environment is concerned. This is achieved through appropriate controls on the economy in addition to empowering employees with necessary infrastructure. Business entities have a role of creating terms and conditions which have monetary and non-monetary rewards with the aim of improving the level of satisfaction of employees at the workplace. There are several challenges facing the government, industries and organizations as they strive to attract and retain employees in Western Australia. Remuneration strategies adopted by any organization must consider the living standards of the people in the country. Workers face the challenges of increasing cost of housing and other living expenses and this must be catered for in the remuneration packages provided by the employers. The price for a median house is approximately $822,000 in Karratha and $ 685,0 00 in Port Hedland. Renting a house per week would cost $3000 in resource towns and $350 per week for a single room. Theories on remuneration Employees are motivated by both monetary and non-monetary factors within the organization. The monetary motivators are called the transactional motivation factors because the employees seek financial benefits from the work done. The non-monetary motivators are called the transformational motivators because the employees also seek non-financial aspects.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Remuneration in Western Australia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Both monetary and non-monetary motivational elements are applied by managers to attract and retain professionals and skilled individuals. Human resources management has been said to be a transactional process such that subordinates perform their duties because they have been promised monetary rewards. According to Greiner, th ese rewards may take the form of salaries or wages. Reward systems are used to attract, retain and motivate employees in an organization. Remuneration levels applied by organizations should satisfy the human needs of the employees. In addition, remuneration should also be felt fair by the employees by offering rewards that reflect the contribution of each employee. There are legal requirements that managers should adhere to when implementing any reward systems. On the other hand, any reward system should be affordable and aligned to the strategies of the organization. According to ZÃ ¼gner and Ullrich there are three levels of remuneration: fixed levels of payment, payment based on performance of individual employee and payment based on the results of the company. Fixed payments are made when the salary or wages of employees do not change unless when the employer implements a general pay hike. There are several factors such as the time an employee has worked with the company , skills, position, and other factors which determine the amount of salary paid to the employees. This system does not motivate workers because there are few incentives to improve job performance as well as retaining employees. This remuneration system does not offer employees with the opportunity to have better payment scales as their performance and productivity improves. Firms that are able to motivate their employees have a lower rate of employee turnover and can retain the workforce for a longer period of time. Firms using a remuneration system that is based on the quality and quantity of work done are able to motivate their employees to work extra hard while encouraging them to work for a longer period with the company. Most companies use a combination of the two systems to encourage employees to improve their performance. Employees get feedback on their performance through this system because their performance determines their remuneration level. Employees tend to work fo r a longer period of time with a firm when they get positive feedback from their employers. Some companies use remuneration systems which are based on the results obtained in a given period. There is a fixed remuneration level for all employees while bonuses are added according to the performance of the company in a given financial period. This system can be implemented in different ways such as selling shares to the employees. When the company has good performance, its reputation improves and share value increases and as a result, employees get a higher dividend level. This system has some risks to the employees because their remuneration is determined by their performance as well as external market factors. Employers using this system do not motivate their employees to a greater extent compared to other methods of remuneration and therefore this system is not effective in retaining employees.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important for managers to conduct market analysis on the prevailing remuneration rates in the market to ensure they implement appropriate pay rates. An organization that provides a lower rate of payment than the market rate has the risk of losing its customers to competitors. With the free flow of information in the labour market, professionals compare the wage rates in the market and they tend to accept offers by companies with better terms. On the other hand, providing too high remuneration rates may not be healthy to the organization. An organization derives profits from the excess revenues obtained after subtracting operational costs. Bearing in mind that labour costs are operational expenses, increasing wage rates reduces the profits of a company. Managers must balance the wage rates provided by to their employees and the prevailing market conditions to ensure appropriate decisions are made. Managers should conduct continuous job evaluation to ensure they get the best out of the employees. Evaluating employees determines the decisions on changing the wage rates. It is important that managers should adjust wage rates when employees improve their performance. A grading structure should be established in an organization to provide employees with a clear picture on their progress as they continue working with the organization. Grading structure helps employees improve their performance and motivates them to continue working for the organization because they have the hope for a better wage rate whenever their performance improves. Managers should consider internal and external market environments when setting the wage rates and pay structures. Retaining employees requires motivating them at the workplace by the use of different aspects. Managers use both monetary and non-monetary reward incentives to motivate their employees. The monetary rewards include promotions, increment in wages, paid leaves, and hospital allowances among others. The non-mo netary rewards include thanksgiving for improvement in the workplace and recognition by the top management among others. The management encourages the workers to improve their performance when they create reward incentives within the organization. Reward incentives such as promotions and salary increment should be based on the quality of work done. According to Bogardus, employees are not only motivated by the wages they receive from the organizations but are also motivated by many other factors within the environment of the organization. Performance-related pay improves the quality of the work done by the employees. Money is a motivator and increase in wages improves the performance of the employees. This system provides incentives to the employees to work hard to increase the total amount earned. Workers are more productive when their wages are determined by the individual efforts. Performance related system encourages employees to improve the quality of work done and also motivates employees to increase their productivity. Promotions within the organizations are done on the performance of the employees to encourage them work effectively and efficiently. Fayol suggested that money is a motivator and can be used to change the behavior of employees. He suggested that remuneration packages provided to employees should be attractive to motivate them. To ensure there is a balance between remuneration policies and available resources, Fayol suggested that managers should create wage systems which coincides with the resources of an organization. As such, managers have an obligation to provide remuneration scales which motivate employees and at the same time the organization is not deprived off its ability to operate. In the modern business world, employees are seeking other motivational factors other than monetary benefits. Managers have the obligation of developing different motivational systems to encourage employees improve their performance. Traditionally, money was perceived as the major motivational tool in an organization but managers have come to realize that there are many factors which motivate employees. Therefore, an integrated system is important in an organization such that managers use a variety of motivational elements to improve performance. Bruce and Pepitone suggested that there are two categories of motivational factors: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors refer to the inner feeling that a person has about the place of work. Extrinsic factors are the external factors which motivate an employee. Extrinsic factors include rewards, promotion, and recognition among others. Employees work harder when their welfare is put into consideration by their managers. Employees are motivated to work when they are made to realize that their work add value to the organization. When employees are provided the opportunity to take interest in their work, they improve performance and contribute willingly to the organizational goals. In a capitalistic economic system the employees (owners of the labour factor of production) and the managers (owners of capital) are rivals and each of the party aims at maximizing his benefits from the other. The employees aim at getting the highest amount of wages possible from the organization. The management aims at obtaining the maximum output from the employees. The two groups are always against each other and the initiatives to engage employees are just but methods of promoting the goals of the management. Most of the initiatives to motivate employees have no monetary benefits to the employees. Creating equilibrium in the labour market ensures that the employer and the employee are satisfied by the prevailing market conditions. Legal systems in a country are established to protect the interests of both the employer and the employee. Employees are protected from exploitation by the employer while the employers are protected from excess pres sure by the labour unions. To reduce conflicts on the remuneration system adopted in an organization, it is important for employers to engage employees in decision making process. In some cases, trade unions are involved in discussing the best rates for employees. Labour unions have been found to be effective in uniting employees and employers and in the making of collective decisions. Collective bargaining is important in modern business environment because it provides all parties with opportunities to express their ideas on the best decisions to be implemented. Collective bargaining encourages employees to continue working for an organization for a long period of time. A legal agreement is made during a collective bargaining process and both the employee and the employer have the mandate to adhere to the decisions made. The remuneration rates applied in an organization must be discussed in a collective agreement process to ensure fairness to all parties involved. The government ha s the mandate to intervene in situations where employers are likely to oppress employees. Application of remuneration theories to the economy of Western Australia The declining population in Western Australia requires the government attracting people from other countries to work in the country. A lot of effort is required to retain the existing employees as a measure of reducing the deficiency. Retaining the existing number of employees will require the use of suitable remuneration packages for employees. Favourable remuneration should be applied to ensure professionals and skilled employees are retained. In addition to using money as a motivator, other non-monetary factors should be implemented to ensure that employees are attracted and retained at their place of work. Labour unions in the country should be encouraged to protect the welfare of employees. Solving conflicts between employees and employers will provide a good foundation for promoting the welfare of employees. Coll ective bargaining on the remunerations applied by organizations should be encouraged to avoid imposing decisions upon the employees. Through collective bargaining employees will have a stake in the decisions implemented in an organization. The increasing competition in the domestic and global markets requires the managers in the country to focus on establishing strategies which will provide competitive advantage. Globalization has changed the business environment and managers are supposed to take diversified strategies of motivating their employees. Globalization has been accompanied by an increase in competition in both domestic and global markets. This has forced managers to come up with better strategies to manage organizational resources to create competitive advantage as well as increase profitability against the highly competitive market environment. As globalization continues to take place in the local and global markets, managers are required to adopt better strategies to ma nage their workers. As market conditions continue to change, there is increasing need to come with better human resource management policies about remuneration systems to maintain competitiveness in the global markets. The labour market has experienced a lot of changes because many organizations are operating in the global markets. Labor factor of production has become mobile and people can work in different countries. This has increased competition for skilled labour and there has been a great need to improve employee motivation. Reducing employee turnover in the current market conditions requires adopting better strategies when establishing remuneration systems of organizations in the country. Employees become loyal to an organization when they are motivated to work. Winning employee loyalty is an important aspect that organizations should focus on because skilled labour is becoming scarce in the country. Different reward systems are accepted by different labour markets and th is provides opportunities for managers to attract professionals from different countries. It is important for managers to understand the legal regulations established by different governments, especially when working in a multi-governmental environment. Conclusion Remuneration provides workers with morale to improve their work and also motivates them to deliver according to the requirements of the job. Employees are motivated by monetary and non-monetary benefits. Motivation is the inner feeling that a worker develops to improve performance in the workplace. Countries have regulated remuneration systems adopted by organizations operating within their jurisdiction to protect the interests of both the employers and employees. In Western Australia, there has been a decline in the population and this has reduced the number of people available to provide labour in the country. Remuneration has been identified as a major factor that employers use to attract and retain professionals an d individuals with skills. Motivation helps attract and retain employees in an organization because workers are satisfied at the workplace when their needs are fulfilled. Providing better terms of payment should be a major concern for all employers because professionals and skilled workers will be attracted and retained in an organization when they are provided with good remuneration packages. The government in Western Australia should consider establishing legal systems which attract professionals from other countries to boost the workforce in the country. It is also recommended that apart from using attractive remuneration packages to employees, organization should focus on improving the overall welfare of employees by applying other non-monetary motivational elements. Bibliography Armstrong, Michael., Murlis, Helen and Group, Hay. Reward management: a handbook of remuneration strategy and practice. Kogan Page Publishers, 2007. ISBN 0749449861, 9780749449865 Australian Bureau of S tatistics 2010. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/ Bogardus, Anne. PHR / SPHR Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide. John Wiley and Sons. 2009. ISBN 0470430966 Bohlander, George and Snell, Scott. 2009. Managing Human Resources. ISBN 0324593317, Cengage Learning. Bruce, Anne and Pepitone, James. S. Motivating employees. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1998. ISBN 0070718687. Caisley, Kiely T. Collective Bargaining. CCH New Zealand Limited, 2007. 80-99. ISBN 0864756348, 9780864756343. p 85. Cooke, William. N. Multinational companies and global human resource strategies. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003. Council of Australian Governments, National Affordable Housing Agreement, Canberra. 2008. Fayol, Henri and Iwrin, Gray. General and industrial management. (Trans. C Storrs). London: Pitman. 1987 Greiner, Joy Marilyn, 2004. Exemplary Public Libraries: Lessons in Leadership, Management, and Service. Libraries Unlimited, 2004. Lawler III, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., Benson, G. Jossey-Bass, (2001). Organizing for High Performance: Employee Involvement, Tqm, Reengineering, and Knowledge Management in the Fortune 1000: The CEO Report . McClelland, David. C. Human motivation. CUP Archive, 1987. ISBN 0521369517. Shields, John. Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. 2007. The Department of Commerce. Worksafe. Government of Western Australia. 2010. The Department of Training and Workforce Development. Attracting and retaining a skilled workforce. Government of Western Australia. 2010. ZÃ ¼gner, Christiane and Ullrich, Stefan. Compensation and remuneration. GRIN Verlag, 2007. ISBN 3638702200, 9783638702201. Footnotes The Department of Training and Workforce Development. Attracting and retaining a skilled workforce. Government of Western Australia. 2010, p. 1 Ibid The Department of Commerce. Worksafe. Government of Western Australia. 2010. p. 5. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010. The Department of Training and Workforce Development. P. 2 Ibid. p. 2-3. Council of Australian Governments, National Affordable Housing Agreement, Canberra. 2008. p. 3. Marilyn, Greiner Joy. Exemplary Public Libraries: Lessons in Leadership, Management, and Service. Libraries Unlimited, 2004.p. 12. John, Shields. Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. 2007. p. 52. Christiane, ZÃ ¼gner and Ullrich, Stefan. Compensation and Remuneration. (GRIN Verlag, 2007, p. 2). ISBN 3638702200, 9783638702201. p. 2. Ibid Ibid Ibid Michael Armstrong., Murlis, Helen and Group, Hay. Reward management: a handbook of remuneration strategy and practice. Kogan Page Publishers, 2007. p. 8-9. ISBN 0749449861, 9780749449865 Ibid. Anne, Bogardus. PHR / SPHR Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide. John Wiley and Sons. 2009. ISBN 0470430966. Ibid. David, McClelland. C. Human motivation. CUP Archive, 1987. ISBN 0521369517. p. 16. Henri, Fayol and Iwrin, Gray. General and industrial management. (Trans. C Storrs). London: Pitman. 1987. P. 42. Ibid. Anne, Bruce and Pepitone, James. S. Motivating employees. McGraw-Hill Professional 1998. ISBN 0070718687. p. 8. Ibid. Lawler III, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., Benson, G. Jossey-Bass, (2001). Organizing for High Performance: Employee Involvement, Tqm, Reengineering, and Knowledge Management in the Fortune 1000: The CEO Report .p. 6. Kiely, Caisley T. Collective Bargaining. CCH New Zealand Limited, 2007. 80-99. ISBN 0864756348, 9780864756343. p 85. William, Cooke. N. Multinational companies and global human resource strategies. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003. p. 32. George, Bohlander and Snell, Scott. Managing Human Resources. ISBN 0324593317, Cengage Learning, 2009. p. 15.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
What You Need to Know About Changing Careers With Expert Norine Dagliano If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for a job, you probably already know about Norine Dagliano. A coach and hiring expert who writesÃ onÃ ekm Inspirations, Norine shared with us some insight into how to find a job and use job boards to help. What are some common motivations you see among people changing careers?IÃ¢â¬â¢ve worked with thousands of career changers; some are motivated by ambition, others by circumstances.Divorce, death of a spouse, changes in health, company lay-offs, or other life circumstances Ã¢â¬Å"motivateÃ¢â¬ people to examine where they are and decide to pursue another path.On a more positive note, there are professionals who retire, but are not ready to quit working. TheyÃ want to step back from a high-power career to move into an area with fewer pressures or pursue an earlier dream that got pushed to the back-burner. Veterans leaving a career in the military find themselves asking, Ã¢â¬Å"Now what?Ã¢â¬ - many military occupations do not translate to the privat e sector, so clearly a career change is in order.Then there are those who are motivated by sheer ambition and a belief that anything is possible- these are the job seekers that embrace change and go after it with gusto. Some have decided to go back to school and pursue a degree in a new field. Others have never let go of their dreams to work for themselves and have the confidence and support- emotional and sometimes monetary- to proactively plan a change and chart a course to make it happen.WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the future of the career? Will we stick to one job still, or is the future in multiple careers?The career ladder is no longer a reality, norÃ is the notion that one will have one job and one employer until he or she retires. Careers no longer follow straight lines; instead, they zig and zag, stop and start, step back and then forward.Forecasters predict that the average 21-year-old entering the workforce will make three to five career changes before leaving the workforce. Factor i n the reality that dozens of new occupations are introduced each year, and it only stands to reason that what one is doing now may not even be around in a few years or may take on a whole new look. Employers who are not willing to embrace this new workforce and recognize that knowledge, skills, and abilities often outweigh experience will overlook valuable talent and, in turn, fail to thrive.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Intelligence Analysis - Essay Example Intelligence analysis is a discipline, as it requires more than just education to carry out some function of analysis in concise manner. Therefore, intelligence analysis has to combine historical, journalism, research methodology, professional skeptics and information collection techniques to be effective. Because it is a discipline, the intelligence analysts have to bear skills and knowledge of the subject matter to be analyzed and to be in line with the analysis policies as well. Intelligence analysis should also have an understanding of the research methods as a discipline in order to organize and evaluate the collected data. As a discipline, intelligence analysis has an understanding of the unique collection methods of information that relates to intelligence and other relevant aspects. There is a connection between psychology and intelligence analysis and the two disciplines blend well because they both recognize the cognitive biases as well as other cognitive influenced that come because of intelligence
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Healthcare reform - Research Paper Example The health reforms have targeted three major areas: uniformity of plans across gender, age and people with pre-existing diseases; accessibility to quality healthcare; and rein in cost (Whitehouse). The cost effectiveness would broadly be addressed by enforcing measures to control wastage, fraud and abuse in Medicare. The austerity measures and savings would further enable the healthcare industry to spread medical insurance to larger segment of population who have not been covered under healthcare plans due to lack of finances. $630 billion have been allotted in the budget of 2010 which would be used as reserve for the healthcare reforms over a period of ten years (OMB). Graham (2011) asserts that Ã¢â¬ËAffordable Care Act offers the potential to address the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations, by bringing down health care costs, investing in prevention and wellness, supporting improvements in primary care, and creating linkages between the traditional realms of health and social servicesÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus, it can be successfully concluded that reforms initiatives in healthcare would go a long way in promoting equality and non discrimination at all levels of healthcare
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Extensive Reading With Young Learners English Language Essay In this essay, I will discuss extensive reading with Young Learners, and how extensive reading can be promoted, with reference to young learners in Hong Kong. Children learn to read in English in schools in Hong Kong at an early age, but there is little encouragement for them to read for purposes other than to learn the language. I will examine the benefits of extensive reading, in particular childrens stories, and how these can be used to promote extensive reading with primary learners in my teaching context at the British Council Hong Kong. Why extensive reading? Day and Bamford (1998, 4) contend that the type of reading done in ESL classes bears little resemblance to reading done in the real world, and that in fact students learning to read a second language do not read and they do not like reading. Reading in the classroom tends to be done purely in order to teach or review a language point, or to train students for an exam. However, It is simplistic but true that the more students read, the better they become at it (Day and Bamford 1998, 4). Teachers therefore need to find ways of encouraging students to read that are enjoyable and motivating for them, and more closely resemble the kind of reading that is done outside the classroom. Extensive reading, is any reading that is done either for pleasure or not explicitly for the purposes of teaching reading. (Emery 2009, 38). This can be any type of text, whether fiction or factual. With this type of reading, the readers attention should be on the meaning, not the language, of the text (Day and Bamford 1998, 5). As children focus on meaning when learning a language, extensive reading should then particularly appeal to them as a way of learning English, especially if the texts are of types that they would normally read in their first language. Language learning from reading comes from exposure to the language, but is not the primary aim of extensive reading. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 9) list the following benefits of reading for pleasure; reading attainment and writing ability text comprehension and grammar breadth of vocabulary positive reading attitudes, which are linked to achievement in reading greater self-confidence as a reader pleasure in reading later in life Although their report was regarding native speaker children in the UK, they note that these benefits are equally true for second language acquisition. It appears, then, that extensive reading is crucial for literacy development. In Hong Kong, there is little interest in reading for pleasure, particularly in English (Ho 2008, Leung 2005). Taking into account the above benefits of reading for pleasure, it seems crucial to encourage a love of reading extensively in our students in Hong Kong, both inside and outside the classroom. Why stories? First and foremost, children enjoy stories. Stories are particularly important in the lives of our children Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Childrens hunger for stories is constant (Wright 1995, 3). If we provide children with stories, they will be motivated to read and listen to them. Reading stories in the classroom is a shared event, which encourages social skills, such as cooperation, collaboration, listening and turn taking and helps to create appropriate affective conditions for learning to take place (Read 2008, 7). We can also provide them with the means to read stories for themselves outside the classroom, increasing their exposure to language further. Children are also aware of and enjoy stories in their first language; From their early experience, children are likely to be familiar with story or narrative structure (Cameron 2001, 129). This means that, unlike many classroom activities, the telling or reading of a story will be a familiar activity. Even if reading books and stories are not commonplace in the home, children will have had exposure to stories through a variety of other media, e.g. films and cartoons. Children are therefore more likely to be receptive to a story than an activity which is not so familiar and therefore potentially confusing. Stories fulfill childrens need for security and novelty (Cameron 2001), as there is the security of the familiar structure of the story, with a beginning, introduction to characters, a problem which is resolved, and an ending, and also the novelty of new stories, characters and plot surprises. Stories provide a clear context from which children can find meaning. The meaning and enjoyment of the story are the most important for children, and the meaning of the language is supported by the context. They work out the meaning first and tend not to pay attention to the words that are used to express the meaning (Moon 2000, 5). Stories are a rich source of language. Because stories are designed to entertain, writers and tellers choose and use words with particular care to keep the audience interested (Cameron 2001, 163). Many words and phrases are often repeated throughout a story, increasing students exposure to them, and also helping to create the sense of security and familiarity. Through such exposure to language children are learning new vocabulary, often without realising it (Cameron 2001, 164), and the teacher can also exploit this vocabulary in classroom activities. Moreover, this vocabulary is used within a clear context, so Children have the ability to grasp meaning even if they dont understand all the words (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 8). Heathfield (2009, 17) refers to his own experience of storytelling with elementary Italian learners, who were able to follow and understand the general meaning of stories told in English. Attention can be paid to vocabulary and students accuracy once the context and meaning have been established. Stories provide children with exposure to not only vocabulary, but also to the structure of sentences and the general feel and sound of the foreign language (Wright 1995, 5). If stories are read aloud, children have exposure to the pronunciation of the language, its rhythm and intonation. This exposure helps them with their fluency, both written and spoken, when they are later ready to move to more productive use of the language. Stories also contain a variety of themes and topics which can be interesting and relevant to the students themselves, or can be exploited in the class. These themes can be linked to other subjects across the curriculum. They can also help develop childrens awareness of the world around them, or of different cultures. Stories can also be used as a stimulus for speaking and writing, and exercise the imagination (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 1). Cameron (2001, 160), warns, however, that we should not allow our feelings of nostalgia and fond memories of childhood stories to colour our perceptions of the magic of stories. She notes that the classroom is not the same as the family home, and the teacher is not a parent, so we should adopt a more critical stance to using stories in class, both in our choices of stories and the way that we use them, and to be open to using other text types which may be equally appealing to children. We should also be aware that stories are also available through other media than books, e.g. animated cartoons or TV programmes, and it is very likely that children may be even more receptive to these forms of media than traditional books. Choosing stories The stories used with children should first of all appeal to them (Phillips, 1993, 46), whether it is the theme, the illustrations, or the fact that it is a story which is familiar to them and they know they will enjoy it. A good story Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ is simply one that listeners or readers enjoy (Cameron 2001, 166). The story should have interesting characters that the children can relate to and a clear plot, with possibly a surprise at the end. The length of the text should be appropriate, i.e. for beginning readers using books with shorter texts will promote success and motivation. The language used in the book should also be simple enough for them to understand, but also contain some language which is beyond their current level in order to develop learning and language development. The child should be able to build on familiar language with new language, but not be demotivated by reading something beyond their level. A story which uses a lot of repeated structures and vocabulary will help reinforce meaning, and children also enjoy the repetition. The illustrations used in a book are also important, as they not only make the book more appealing to a child, but can also support the meaning of the text and new vocabulary and stimulate their imagination (Hsiu-Chih 2008). The themes of the story can also help children to understand more about the world, but should have appropriate values and portrayals of characters. If a story is being used in class, one could be used which fits the topic of the lesson. There are many graded readers available for young learners, in which language is carefully selected to match the childs level of English. However, the language is often simplified in these readers to such an extent that the language becomes unnatural, for example present tenses are used throughout, whereas in authentic literature a story is nearly always told using past tenses. As Cameron (2001, 166) comments, It seems a pity to deprive learners of opportunities to hear authentic uses of past tense forms Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ I can see no intrinsic reason for supposing that use of the past tense would prevent children understanding a story. Cameron also points out that although many text books for young EFL learners contain stories, they often lack the prototypical features of a story, such as a plot with a a problem to be resolved, and a satisfactory ending. These stories are unlikely to capture childrens imaginations in the same way that stories can do (Cameron 2001, 162). Quality storie s have characters and a plot that engage children, often the art work is as important as the text in telling the story, and they create a strong feeling of satisfaction when the end is reached (Cameron 2001, 166). There are many arguments for providing children learning English as a second language with real books offering a rich source of authentic input and challenge (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 8). These stories are more likely to contain the elements necessary in a quality story as described by Cameron, and children can feel highly motivated by being able to understand a story which has not been simplified. There is also such a wide variety of authentic story books which makes it easier to choose something which will appeal to many different children. Ellis and Brewster (2002, 8) note that it can be argued that the language in authentic story books can be too complex for children learning English, while the content may be too simplistic for their age if a book is chosen which has been written for a younger target age. They argue that In a foreign language, however, children are often very happy to accept stories which they may reject in their mother tongue. Although care needs to be taken to select books which will appeal to the child, what is important is the way that the story is exploited and the language learning supported for the childrens particular level. It is what we expect the children to do which determines the proficiency level required, not the story itself (Wright 1995, 3). It is also important that the child, not just the teacher or parent, chooses the books that they would like to read. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 22) stress the importance of children choosing their own reading material on motivation and acheivement. They refer to Krashen, saying that students who choose what they read Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ tend to be more motivated, read more and show greater language and literacy development. Cameron (2001, 164) believes that children may learn vocabulary while listening to stories without realising it, and learner involvement with a story may be what makes a difference Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ letting children choose the stories they want to hear may help maximise the learning that takes place. They will be more likely to choose books that interest them, and therefore be more motivated to understand and engage with the text. It is difficult to place too much emphasis on the role interesting material plays in the desire to read (Day and Bamford 1998, 29). Using stories and promoting extensive reading There are many ways in which extensive reading and reading stories can be promoted both inside and outside of the classroom, which I will discuss in relation to my current teaching context. In the classroom, the teacher can use stories in a variety of ways, both to promote reading and to exploit stories for further language work. Reading stories aloud to the class is an effective way of exposing children to story books and their narrative structure. From listening and watching an adult read aloud, children can see how texts are handled, how texts encode words and ideas, how words and sentences are set out on a page Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Affectively, reading aloud can motivate children to want to read themselves (Cameron 2001, 141). The telling of the story should be an enjoyable experience, and, if possible, the classroom arranged so that all children are sitting around the teacher, maybe on the floor, so that everyone can see the book (Wright 1995). The teacher should take care to hold the book so everyone in the class can see it, and use mime, gestures, facial expressions, the stress and intonation of their voice, and the pictures in the book, to help students understanding (Ellis and Brewster 2002, Read 2008). Students should be encouraged to participate in the story reading through questions which reinforce understanding, e.g. describing the pictures, or making predictions about what happens next. The teacher can help students with new and difficult vocabulary by providing tasks to pre-teach vocabulary, and follow up with activities which consolidate the language and help students to recall the story. Above all, the story and related activities should be enjoyable for the students. Favorable feelings for and experiences with the teacher, classmates, materials, tasks, procedures, and so on, can forge positive attitudes toward reading in the second language (Day and Bamford 1998, 25). At the British Council Hong Kong literacy texts have been incorporated into the syllabuses for the higher level primary classes for students aged 8 and above. These are generally texts which are used in schools in the UK to teach literacy in the British National Curriculum, with accompanying teachers notes and materials these are usually adapted to suit the EFL and local contexts. The texts chosen are for a younger age group than they would be in the UK, i.e. materials for British children aged 8 to 9 are used in classes for Hong Kong learners aged 10 to 11. These have proved to be overwhelmingly popular with teachers, who report that they enjoy using them and find that students also enjoy the stories whilst being stretched, because they can see that the materials are authentic and feel a sense of achievement. Many teachers also use storytelling in class, as story books are readily available in Hong Kong. These teachers appreciate the value of using story books in class, and find storytelling an enjoyable activity in class themselves. Some teachers use story books not just for teaching purposes, e.g. the introduction/consolidation of language or to complement the course book materials, but also for a story time slot. Often at the end of the lesson, the story time slot is used as part of the classroom routine and settles children. The stories are read purely for enjoyment, and if enough books are available (some teachers have their own story book collection) students are able to choose which stories they would like to hear. For younger primary students book boxes are provided with a selection of suitable books, which teachers are encouraged to use with their classes. One advantage of the book boxes is that with a selection of books children are able to choose for themselves what the would like to read, or what they would like the teacher to read. Other ways of encouraging children to choose and read books would be to have a book corner in the classroom or a lending library for children, so that children could enjoy reading by themselves either in class or at home. Unfortunately, neither of these are currently feasible at British Council Hong Kong. The classrooms are used by many different classes, including adults, so it would not be practical to set up a corner of the classroom with books. There is also the issue of funding book corners or a library; with approximately 3,500 primary students currently taking courses at the British Council, the cost of buying sufficient books for either scheme is prohib itive. One scheme which has been successfully introduced for primary classes is a Reading Challenge. Students are encouraged to read books in English and write brief reviews of them. After they have read six they receive a prize of a certificate and a book. The success of the scheme seems to depend largely on how much the individual teacher promotes it, but prizes have been earned by students across a range of classes, not only in the highest levels or older age groups. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 20), in a review of studies examining the effect of reward on motivation, conclude that we cannot be certain that rewarding children for reading actually motivates them to read more, or if they do so, that they are reading purely to get a prize and will not continue to read widely in the future. However, if a reward is given for reading, it appears that literacy-targeted rewards, such as books or book vouchers, are more effective in developing reading motivation than rewards that are unrelated to the activity. The most important factor, however, in developing childrens literacy and enjoyment of reading is the involvement of their parents (Clark 2007, Clark and Rumbold 2006, 24, Wood 1998, 220). The British Council Hong Kong has recently introduced parent workshops to encourage parents to read with their children, emphasising the importance of reading not only for literacy and educational attainment but also social and emotional development. Parents are also shown how to choose appropriate books and how to read them with their children, exploiting the stories and the pictures. These workshops are proving to be very popular with parents, who, while keen to encourage their children academically, had previously not realised the benefits of reading for pleasure. Conclusion There is not on the whole a culture of reading in Hong Kong, but, given the advantages outlined of extensive reading, it is particularly important to encourage our students to read for pleasure, and using story books can be particularly effective. This requires not only access to suitable texts, but also training for teachers and parents on how to read books with children and develop further language use. (3,204 words)
Friday, January 17, 2020
In the current business environment, knowledge evolves rapidly and the useful life span of organizational skills is decreasing, which means survival and competitiveness of an organization is linked to its ability to learn and include its findings in their strategic management process. Having cited the criticality of strategic management on the survival of today's business, it is of paramount importance that in this weeks issue I deal on the subject of Strategic Management Process.Key Definitions I would like to start by defining some key words and phrases that are associated with the strategic management process. A Strategy is a company's long-term plan for how it will balance its internal strengths and weaknesses with its external opportunities and threats to maintain a competitive advantage. Strategic management is the process of identifying and executing the organization's mission by matching its capabilities with the demands of its environment.Strategic planning is the process by which the guiding members of an organization envision its future and develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future (Goodliest, teal, 1992). This definition takes us away from the notion that strategic landing is a staff Job and focuses us more on process that requires senior leaders of an organization to set its strategic direction. Strategic plans are important because strategic planning to a few elite in an organization, it should be noted that there different levels of strategic planning.These are corporate level strategies, business level strategies and functional level strategies. The concept of strategic management builds on the definition of strategic planning, recognizing that although planning is the prelude of strategic management, it is not sufficient if it is not followed by the plowmen and implementation of the plan and the evaluation of the plan in action. Strategic management is therefore a systems approach to identifying and making the neces sary changes and measuring the organization's performance as it moves toward its vision.It is the process where managers establish an organization's long term direction, set specific performance objectives; develop strategies to achieve these objectives in light of all the relevant internal and external circumstances, and undertake to execute the chosen direction. The strategic management process is Hereford a series of steps that formulates the strategic planning, implementation and evaluation. This process is depicted by many model/drawings which basically depict the strategic management steps. Most of these models only differ in to the extent to which they simplify the process but they generally agree on major elements.Strategic Management Process Model Fig. 1 It can be seen from fig 1 above that strategic management process is an iterative process as depicted by the arrows. Strategic planning comprises (see Figure 3-1) the first 5 of 7 strategic management tasks: (1) Defining th e business and developing a session, (2) Evaluating the firm's internal and external strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and Threats, (3) formulating a new business statement, (4) translating the mission into strategic goals, and (5) formulating strategies or courses of action.The entire 7- Step 1: Define the Current Business Every company must choose the terrain on which it will compete?in particular, what products it will sell, where it will sell them, and how its products or services will differ from its competitors'. Therefore, the most basic strategic decisions managers make involve deciding Ã¢â¬Å"what businessÃ¢â¬ their firms should be in: For instance, in terms of the products or services they'll sell the geographic locales in which they'll sell them, and how they'll distinguish their products or services from competitors'.They ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Where are we now in terms of the business we're in, and what business do we want to be in, given our company's opportunities and thr eats, and its strengths and weaknesses? Ã¢â¬ Managers then choose strategy to drive the company to achieve the vision. This may be better enshrined in a vision statement as a sort of shorthand to married how they see the business down the road. The company's vision is a general statement of its intended direction that shows, in broad terms, Ã¢â¬Å"what they want to become. Two management gurus, Warren Bennie and Bert Mans say, To choose a direction, a leader must first have developed a mental image of a possible and desirable future state for the organization. This image, which we call a vision, may be as vague as a dream or as precise as a goal or mission statement. The critical point is that a vision articulates a view of a realistic, credible, attractive future or the organization, a condition that is better in some important ways than what now exists.Visions are usually in longer terms, broader images; managers also formulate mission statements to communicate the purpose of t heir (company) present existence. Whereas visions usually lay out in very broad terms what the business should be, the mission lays out in broad terms what their main tasks are now. The mission statement of the company that I work for is; Ã¢â¬ËTo be the preferred supplier of electricity regionally and abroad. Ã¢â¬Ë The mission statement is, to bring convenience to our valued customers through provision of electricity and related services. Ã¢â¬Ë Step 2: Perform External and Internal Audits (Environmental scanning).Strategic planning starts by methodically analyzing external and internal situations. The strategic plan should provide a direction for the firm that makes sense, in terms of the external opportunities and threats the firm faces and the internal strengths and weaknesses it possesses. To facilitate this strategic external/internal audit or environmental scanning, we use SOOT analysis. This involves using a SOOT chart to impel and organize the process of identifying com pany Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. When doing internal audits or scan companies should check for their strength and weakness.They should capitalist on their strength to create a competitive advantage in their industry, strengths can be in the form of a hardworking organizational culture which they can ride upon in order to have an edge over other like firms. However companies should also not turn a blind eye on their weaknesses. Weakness doesn't mean that one is incapable but being aware of them calls for a decision to avert them. Weakness can be in the form of lake of strategic objectives that are meant to reduce the effects of the weaknesses. External audits scan for Opportunities and Threats.These can be at micro and macro levels. At macro level businesses should look into the Political, Economic, Social, Technical, Environmental and Legal (PESTLE) environment for threats and opportunities. Step 3: Formulate New Business and Mission Statements In light of the situation analysis (environmental scanning), leaders/managers should determine what their new business should be, in terms of what products it will sell, here it will sell them, and how its products or services will differ from its competitors? This may call for establishing or crafting new Mission and Vision statements to stir the company.Step 4: Translate the Mission into Strategic Goals Saying the mission is Ã¢â¬Å"to provide electricity' is one thing; implementing that mission for your managers is another. The firm's managers need strategic goals. What exactly does that mission mean, for each department, in terms of how we'll boost electricity supply? The Government of Zanzibar has recently adopted a new appraisal system or all parallels, government ministries and institution under its new economic blueprint called JIM-ASSET. The system is called Integrated Results Based Management System.Under this system organizational missions are translated into tangible short-term, mid-ter m and long-term goals which are measurable and specific. Strategic goals are the steps to the envisioned future. Not having them is like sitting for a meeting and coming up with no resolutions or action items. Step 5: Formulate Strategies to Achieve the Strategic Goals Again, a strategy is a course of action. It shows how the enterprise will move from the business it is in now to the business it wants to be in (as laid out by its vision, mission, and strategic goals), given the firm's opportunities, threats, strengths, and weaknesses.The strategies bridge where the company is now, with where it wants to be tomorrow. The best strategies are concise enough for the manager to express in an easily communicated phrase that resonates with employees. These are best described as strategic objectives. Keeping the strategy clear and concise helps ensure that employees all hare that strategy and so make decisions that are consistent with it. Specific performance targets are needed in all areas affecting the survival and success of a company, and they are needed at all levels of management.The act of establishing formal objectives not only converts the direction the company is headed into specific performance targets to be achieved but also guards against drift, aimless activity, confusion over what to accomplish and loss of purpose. Step 6: Implement the Strategies Ã¢â¬Å"What we think, know or believe in is, in the end of little consequence. The only consequence isÃ¢â¬ ¦. What we do. (Hands, 1995). Strategy implementation means translating the strategies into actions and results?by actually hiring (or firing) lines.Strategy implementation involves drawing on and applying all the management functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (POOL). According to Tom Peters and Robert Waterman, a model termed the Seven Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬ Model provides a framework of implementation of a strategic change. Structure changes may have to be made to cope with strategic cha nges, while systems may need also with the new strategic direction. Skills may need to be upgraded or reshuffled properly. Style or culture of management may need also to be readjusted accordingly.All these have their energy directed to achieve the strategic goals (Vision) as depicted on fig 2 above. Step 7: Evaluate Performance Strategies don't always succeed. For example, TN-Holdings failed when it massively rolled out its Subs across the nation in order to be closer to where its customers are. The strategy failed dismally in the following year because of a huge liquidity crunch that is currently bedeviling our economy?because of evaluation management quickly re-strategists and came up with a new business model. Managing strategy is an ongoing process.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
With the emergence of newly innovated business establishments in the Philippines nowadays, no doubt, technology became a part of their progress. And with that scenario, with the aid of the modernization and quick changing technology, the competitiveness and productivity of a firm is an issue. That is why, it is essential to know the role of technology to SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s. This paper aims to know the effect of technology to the competitiveness and productivity of SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s. In a store that is innovated by new gadgets and other forms of technology, the customers tend to buy to them. As a result, the competitive advantage and higher production level is in them. Also, customers are satisfied with technology as a big help for SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s competitiveness and productivity. Most of the people in the world from the last decades wonder why the middle on the field of business is missing. 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